Closed ecological systems - small manmade ecosystems. Such systems are scientifically interesting and can potentially serve as a life support system during space flights, in space stations or space habitats. One example of such an experiment is Biosphere 2 (picture)
Genetically modified food - foods produced from organisms that have had specific changes introduced into their DNA using the methods of genetic engineering. These techniques have allowed for the introduction of new crop traits as well as a far greater control over a food's genetic structure than previously afforded by methods such as selective breeding and mutation breeding. The key area here is genetic engineering.
Precision agriculture - a farming management concept based on observing, measuring and responding to inter and intra-field variability in crops. This field involves GPS, aerial photography using using Unmanned Aerial Vehicles, and other advanced techniques. One example is Yara N-Sensor ALS mounted on a tractor's canopy (picture) – a system that records light reflection of crops, calculates fertilisation recommendations and then varies the amount of fertilizer spread.
Vertical farming - cultivating plant or animal life within a skyscraper greenhouse or on vertically inclined surfaces. One example is a Columbia University project proposed for the New York City, 2007.
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