Immediately after the War, there were elections to the British Parliament in which the Labour Party had a stunning victory over the Conservative Party and a Labour Government was established in Britain.
The Conservative Party wanted to encash its victory in the war without offering any economic and social balm to the Post-War youths. The Labour Party, on the other hand, smelled the mood of the nation and came out with definite, radical proposals. Sharply reacting against the War time Government, the British electorates transferred the power to the Labour Party giving almost 400 out of 640 seats in the House of Commons. It was the clear-cut victory of the Labour Party with a thumping majority under the prime ministership of Clement Richard Attlee.
the war had cost Britain one-quarter of its national wealth. The public debt of the kingdom had tripled from 1939 to 1946. War time property damage was estimated at $5,800,000,000 at 1946 replacement costs. The total casualties (killed, wounded, imprisoned and missing) of the armed forces and the civilian population were 9,50,000
After April 1947, primary education was made compulsory for children of 15 years of age. Facilities for technical training and vocational education for adults were greatly enlarged.In the field of higher education, the government was determined to do a lot. Eventually, in 1963 the government appointed a committee of eleven men, which recommended expansion of Britain's system of higher education to a considerable degree so that large number of jobless British youths could enjoy the benefits of university training.
the government made provisions for insurance payments in case of unemployment, maternity, sickness, and death of a bread-winner and in various other circumstances
National Health Service. Every British citizen was made eligible without charge for care in a hospital, medical service or special care regardless of his income or occupational status.
In the elections of 1945, the Labour Party had already pledged itself to the nationalization of commanding industries. Though the policy of nationalization adopted by the Labour Government was not a new thing as the telegraph and telephone system had already been operated by the Post Office Department. The radio and the sale of power had been nationalized in England as early as in 1926 and 1927. Hence the Post-War nationalization policy of the Labour Government was nothing but the extension of the scope of nationalization. – this is taken directly from socialist program. Also, the free health care and education.
The Labour Government nationalized the Bank of England, the overseas wireless services, the coal mining industry, much of transport and electrical and gas supply. After the nationalization of these enterprises, the Labour Government passed an Act in 1949 to nationalize the iron and steel industry. In 1951 the government set up the Iron and Steel Corporation of Great Britain and made it the owner of Britain's important iron and steel companies. – denounced by the Conservative party, Churchill
The entry of the British in to the Korean War was not popular in Great Britain. The adverse trade balance of Britain created a severe financial situation. In addition to it, the defence needs made the British budget higher than ever before. – Labor government essentially pursues the capitalist-imperialist program.
After elections of 1951: The new government immediately set about dismantling the Welfare State. Under the Steel Act of 1953, the Iron and Steel Corporation of Great Britain was dissolved, and a private agency was established in its place.
In the foreign affairs, Britain lost its colonies like India, Palestine, Burma, Malaya. With the loss of these colonies, the rapid shrinkage of the British empire set in
In spring of 1966, Britain reduced its overseas forces by a third. It openly admitted that without the help of the United States, it could not manage any major military operation. In 1967 and 1968, the pound was devalued as a measure of austerity. However, trade continued to sag.
Britain was forced to play a second fiddle in the global affairs. Britain could not protect Turkey Greece against the Soviet expansion in 1947. Its responsibility was shifted to the United States. Britain admitted that she needed a collective defence arrangement