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Energy as emerging technology

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Vortex energy
Vortex engine - using the power of an air vortex to generate electricity. Photo  shows an Australian experimental vortex. 

Airborne wind turbine - a wind turbine that is supported in the air without a tower, thus benefiting from the higher velocity and almost constant wind at high altitudes, while avoiding the expense of tower construction, or the need for slip rings or yaw mechanism.

Artificial photosynthesis - chemical process that replicates the natural process of photosynthesis, a process that converts sunlightwater, and carbon dioxide into carbohydrates and oxygen. At MIT, a process has been developed to store the solar power for later use. 

Biofuels - fuels are produced from living organisms. There is a good story about biofuel production in one part of a 2013 BBC video "Tomorrow's world".  

Concentrated solar power
Concentrated solar power - use mirrors or lenses to concentrate a large area of sunlight, or solar thermal energy, onto a small area. 

Flywheel energy storage - works by accelerating a rotor (flywheel) to a very high speed and maintaining the energy in the system as rotational energy. When energy is extracted from the system, the flywheel's rotational speed is reduced as a consequence of the principle of conservation of energy; adding energy to the system correspondingly results in an increase in the speed of the flywheel. 

Fusion power - the power generated by nuclear fusion processes. In fusion reactions, two light atomic nuclei fuse to form a heavier nucleus (in contrast with fission power). In doing so they release a comparatively large amount of energy arising from the binding energy due to the strong nuclear force. One of the applications of this power can be "fusion rocket", a theoretical design for a rocket driven by fusion power which could provide efficient and long-term acceleration in space without the need to carry a large fuel supply. See TED presentation on Project "Orion" .

Nuclear reactors
Generation IV reactor - a set of theoretical nuclear reactor designs currently being researched. Most of these designs are generally not expected to be available for commercial construction before 2030. Current reactors in operation around the world are generally considered second- or third-generation systems, with most of the first-generation systems having been retired some time ago. Generation V reactors refer to reactors that may be possible but are not yet considered feasible, and are not actively being developed.

Grid energy storage - the methods used to store electricity on a large scale within an electrical power grid. Electrical energy is stored during times when production (from power plants) exceeds consumption and the stores are used at times when consumption exceeds production. In this way, electricity production need not be drastically scaled up and down to meet momentary consumption – instead, production is maintained at a more constant level. This has the advantage that fuel-based power plants (i.e. coal, oil, gas) can be more efficiently and easily operated at constant production levels.

Smart grid - a modernized electrical grid that uses information and communications technology to gather and act on information, such as information about the behaviors of suppliers and consumers, in an automated fashion to improve the efficiency, reliability, economics, and sustainability of the production and distribution of electricity.

Nantenna -  an experimental technology being developed to convert light to electric power.

Solar roadway -  road surface that generates electricity by solar power photovoltaics. One current proposal is for 12 ft x 12 ft (3.658 m x 3.658 m) panels including solar panels and LED signage, that can be driven on. The concept involves replacing highways, roads, parking lots, driveways, and sidewalks with such a system 

Space-based solar power -  the concept of collecting solar power in space for use on Earth 

Wireless energy transfer
Wireless energy transfer he transmission of electrical energy from a power source to an electrical load without man-made conductors

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