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History of physics

2nd law of thermodynamics – formulated in 1824 by Said Carnot, and later in 1850 by Rudolf Clausius. Important for development of the power of the steam engine.

Theory of relativity – the only thought that comes to my mind as application is movement to the stars, interstellar travel. This is the general tendency of the theory.

Quantum theory – this appears as pointing to a journey into the micro world. Energy comes in “quanta”. Matter has wave properties.

Theory of Everything

·         М. Планк, «Единство физической картины мира», в «Астрономия и космология», 1998.1

·         М. Борн, «Эйнштейновская теория относительности», в «Астрономия и космология», 1998.1

·         Niels Bohr, “Discussions with Einstein on Epistemological Problems in Atomic Physics”, в «Астр. и косм.», 1998.1

Physics / 100 Greatest Discoveries – video

Michio Kaku: The Universe in a Nutshell

Einstein didn’t finish working on “the unified field theory”, or “theory of everything”: “one equation to summarize all the physical forces in the Universe”. But theory of everything cannot be limited to physics. And why it should be merely a theory, and not also a practice? =

“Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from divinity”, Arthur C. Clark. We will have the power of gods.

Beginning of modern physics: Galileo and Newton. 

First force: gravitation. Newton’s 3 laws. They made the Industrial revolution possible.

Second force: electromagnetism. Michael Faraday. Light is an electromagnetic force. Maxwell. We’re still in this force, developing it. 

Strong Nuclear force: holds the nucleus together. Can it be the same as “gravity”? Collision of matter and anti-matter gives the greatest possible energy. 

String theory: a multiverse, instead of one universe. A possibility of “worm holes”, i.e. passing from one “time-space” to another, in effect, time travel, from one universe to another. 

73% of the Universe is “dark energy”, 23% is “dark matter”. Stars – 4% of the universe. Human beings, planets, etc. – 0.3% of the Universe.

Therefore, most of the Universe is not made of “atoms” but of “dark energy and matter”. 


Michio Kaku: The Intelligence Revolution 

No doubt, the future revolution – both, in material production and in social relations – will be driven by intelligence, or rather intelligence + physical force.

Machines learn to recognize objects. That means that computers will become robots.

Robots are certainly the technology of the future to explore with V.