|Notable attacks||U.S. Army Colonel James N. Rowe assassination|
NPA was founded by Bernabe Buscayno A.K.A. "Commander Dante" on March 29, 1969. The Maoist NPA conducts its armed guerrilla struggle based on the strategical line of "protracted people's war". The Philippine Army estimated the NPA's strength at 3,200 fighters at the end of 2015.
On December 26, 1968, the Communist Party of the Philippines was re-established on Marxist-Leninist-Mao Zedong thought line. The CPP immediately went about organizing a new people's army. The CPP had previously made contact with former members of the Hukbong Mapagpalayang Bayan (HMB) – to which the Huks changed their name in the 50s – in Central Luzon. On March 29, 1969, the New People's Army was formed. It had only 72 fighters and was equipped with light weapons. After its initial formation, the CPP and the NPA dispersed and established regional cells in several parts of the country.
In the 1990s internal criticism about mistakes in the 1980s led to the Second Great Rectification Movement, launched in 1992 and largely completed in 1998, leading to a resurgence in the Philippine insurgency. The Second Rectification ended internal purges of the movement that killed hundreds of members on allegations of being "deep penetration agents" of the Armed Forces of the Philippines and the Philippine intelligence community.The Second Great Rectification, despite its successes also resulted in a series of splits within the Party and even the People's Army. The Alex Boncayao Brigade, notorious for targeting policemen and officials that were allegedly corrupt, left the party while some ended up forming groups such as the Revolutionary Proletarian Army and the Rebolusyonaryong Hukbong Bayan.
(From Russian wikipedia):
- Арест маоистских партизан индийскими силами безопасности принёс информацию, что повстанцы ННА присутствуют в Индии как советники наксалитов.
- В лагерях ННА проходили обучение боевики «Движения за свободное Папуа».
The Communist Party of the Philippines (Filipino: Partido Komunista ng Pilipinas) is a leading communist party in the Philippines, formed by Jose Maria Sison on December 26, 1968. It has been fighting a guerrilla war against the state since the late 1960s. It remains an underground political organization since its founding on December 26, 1968 and has been operating in clandestine manner since its founding.
The Communist Party of the Philippines, which promotes Marxism–Leninism–Maoism (MLM), is a revolutionary proletarian party that looks upon the legacies of past Philippine rebellions and revolutions and of the theories of Karl Marx, Friedrich Engels, Vladimir Lenin, Joseph Stalin, and Mao Zedong.
(from Russian Wikipedia):
В течение 1980-х годов внутри партии шли дискуссии по вопросам соотношения массовой и вооруженной борьбы. К концу 1980-х годов в партии возникла большая группа, выступавшая, в частности, за пересмотр анализа филиппинского общества, и ставившая другие политические и идеологические вопросы. Одним из элементов критики руководства был вопрос о внутрипартийной демократии. В 1991 году лидер КПФ Сисон опубликовал текст «Вновь подтверждая наши основные принципы и исправляя ошибки», призывавший вернуться на классические маоистские позиции. Часть организации не признала этого текста и была исключена. Вышедшие из состава КПФ организации (в регионах Манила — Ризаль, Висайяс и Минданао) стали основой для формирования Революционной рабочей партии Филиппин и Революционной рабочей партии Минданао, поддерживающих отношения с Четвертым (троцкистским) интернационалом.
This is one of the best sources on the subj.
The CPP-NPA seeks to overthrow the Philippine government in favor of a new people’s democratic state led by the working class, and the group also seeks to expel U.S. influence from the Philippines. Its other goals include redistributing land to the landless poor and initiating a cultural revolution. The CPP-NPA primarily models its armed struggle on China’s Maoist movement, focusing especially on the idea of a protracted people’s war and mobilizing the masses in rural areas.
The CPP-NPA also sought support, weapons, funds, and training from like-minded groups overseas, including the Japanese Red Army (JRA), the Maoist factions of the Palestinian Liberation Organization (PLO), the Sandinistas, the Communist Party of El Salvador
Generally, the CPP-NPA has not received much financial support. It principally finances itself by collecting “revolutionary taxes,” a form of extortion in which businesses that do not submit payments to the CPP-NPA suffer attacks. The CPP-NPA also sells campaign permits to political candidates who wish to campaign in areas that the group controls
The CPP-NPA allegedly acquires its weapons—including pistols, assault rifles, machine guns,and grenade launchers—mainly from the Armed Forces of the Philippines (AFP) through raids, battles, or illegal purchases. Political candidates have also contributed small arms in lieu of funds for permission to campaign in CPP-NPA-dominated areas. Additionally, the CPP-NPA produces its own anti-tank mines
The CPP-NPA has generally focused on building support in rural areas, aiming to inspire a people’s democratic revolution among the peasantry. It deploys Sandatahang Yunit Pampropaganda (SYPs), which are armed propaganda units consisting of eight to fifteen fighters. The organization is guided by the Maoist idea of a protracted people’s war (PPW), which consists of three stages: strategic defensive, strategic stalemate, and strategic offensive. The CPP-NPA considers itself to be still in the first stage. In support of the PPW, the CPP-NPA has historically used guerrilla tactics, based in mountains or the countryside, against small police or military units. It has also assassinated individual Philippine and U.S. government soldiers, police officers, and officials, and in the 1980s, it set up “sparrow” units of one to five operatives for urban assassinations. Especially beginning in the 1980s, the CPP-NPA has also engaged in urban guerrilla warfare as well as attempted more regularized military formations, such as battalions, to engage in large-scale, conventional attacks. In some regions, the CPP-NPA fought in groups of up to two hundred. ] However, in the early 1990s, Sison’s criticism of these divergences from the strategy of rural-based guerrilla warfare led the CPP-NPA to return largely to its earlier tactics in the countryside. The CPP-NPA generally targets politicians and government forces—using assassinations, bombs, or other means—but it has also attacked companies that do not pay “revolutionary taxes” to the CPP-NPA.
CPP-NPA leaders have often expressed opposition to engaging in political activity, including negotiations and electoral politics, and have instead emphasized armed struggle. However, despite verbally rejecting legal mechanisms for reform, the CPP-NPA has also sporadically engaged in peace talks with the Philippine government. It is a mistake to reject politics entirely. It is another channel…
The CPP-NPA has also allegedly helped establish political parties, which are publicly not linked to either group. Some of those parties have performed well in congressional elections. For example, Bayan Muna, Gabriela, and Anakpawis—three parties thought to be fronts for the CPP-NPA and NDF—together won six congressional seats in 2004