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Notes on Lyadov

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М.Н. Лядов, "25 лет РКП(б)", 

  • Unorganized workers movement in Russia starts at the end of XVIII century
  • First, workers' struggle has the same form as the peasants' movement: they choose representatives which are sent to ministers, the tsar with petitions, and meanwhile, stop working.
  • First workers' circles were created by Narodniki.
  • 1875 - "Southern-Russian Workers' Union", a workers' circle. 
  • Stepan Khalturin

    S. Khalturin - organized a workers' circle, member of terrorist organization "Narodnaya Volya".

    1879 - "Northern Union of the Russian Workers", a circle headed by Stepan Khalturin . This included a whole set of workers' circles and an underground center. Total number of workers was around 200. Fell apart in 1881.
  • 1883 - First Russian Marxist organization appears from remnants of Narodnik organization "Cherny Peredel", whose members escaped abroad. These were Georgi Plekhanov, Very Zasulich, and others. This became called "Emancipation of Labor " group. The group published propaganda material, Marxist works, for the workers' movement in Russia.
  • 1884 - a Bulgarian student Blagoev organizes Marxist propaganda circles among Russian workers, and publishes 2 issues of a newspaper "The Worker". 
  • 1891-2 - Marxist circles appear in Russia. They: a) study Marxist literature, b) study the Russian economic and political scene, c) start approaching workers' movement. 
  • 1894 - first legal Marxist work is published in Russia. It is P. Struve's "Critical Remarks on the Problem of Economic Development of Russia". 
  • Emancipation of Labor

    Members of the "League of Emancipation of Labor". Lenin in the center, Martov to the right of him. Engineer Krizhanovsky to the left of Lenin.

    1895 - "St. Petersburg League of Struggle for the Emancipation of the Working Class" is created, which included Lenin. The group coordinated work of several workers' circles. It's important to notice that none of the core members of the "League" were workers.  
  • 1895 - G. Plekhanov publishes in Russia "Towards the Problem of Development of Monist View of History". The book was aimed against Narodnik theory. 
  • 1898 - the first Congress of the Russian Social-Democratic Labor Party is held in Minsk. Almost all participants of the Congress were arrested on 11-12 March, 1898. 
  • The Development of Capitalism in Russia cover
    1899 - Lenin publishes "Development of Capitalism in Russia", aimed against Narodnik views. This was written in Siberian exile during 1896-98. 
  • 1900 - first issue of "The Spark " (Искра) newspaper is published abroad. The newspaper attempted to cover the political life in Russia from "workers'" point of view, unite the workers, and organize a workers' party.
  • 1901 - Lenin writes "Where to Begin?" (С чего начать?), in which he outlines the process of organization of a party around a newspaper, a plan he created in exile in Siberia. The same idea, only in elaborated form, was later published as a pamphlet "What is to be Done?", in 1902.
  • 1902 - the editorial board of the newspaper "The Spark" organizes "The Organizing Committee" to call the Second Congress of the Russian Social-Democratic Labor Party. Members of the committee took trips around Russia to various social-democratic circles, checked their work, and invited their members to the Congress.
  • 1903 - the Second Congress of the Russian Social-Democratic Labor Party was held in Brussels, later transferred to London. At the Congress, the principal split occurred between the Bolshevik and the Menshevik factions. Immediate reason for the split was the form of the organization. Martov, heading the Mensheviks, wanted a loose kind of organization, wide open to the public. Lenin, heading the Bolsheviks, wanted a centralist organization of professional revolutionaries. 

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